Que sait-on de Khosta-2, ce nouveau virus proche du Covid-19 découvert en Russie ?

Nouveau coronavirus en vue ! En Russie, des scientifiques américains ont découvert un virus cousin du Sars-Cov-2 chez des chauves-souris, selon une étude publiée par l’université de l’État de Washington dans la revue Pathogènes PLoS.

Baptisé Khosta-2, ce virus pourrait toucher les humains, et, à l’instar de certaines sous-variantes d’Omicron, d’échapper à l’immunité conférée par les vaccins anti-Covid. De quoi redouter une prochaine pandémie ?

Contamination des cellules humaines et échappement immunitaire

Découvert en 2020 par une équipe de scientifiques « de virus », Khosta-2 a été découvert chez des chauves-souris au sein du parc national russe de Sotchi, sans toutefois susciter l’inquiétude des chercheurs chercheurs, qui n’ont alors pas pensé qu’il pourrait représenter une menace sur la santé publique. Déjà chez des chauves-souris en Russie, les scientifiques avaient mis au jour un virus frère, Khosta-1, qui, après examen en laboratoire, s’était révélé incapable de contaminer des cellules humaines. Mais la relative sérénité des scientifiques a été troublée par des analyses approfondies nécessaires sur Khosta-2 en laboratoire, qui ont démontré que ce nouveau coronavirus avait, lui, la capacité d’infecter des cellules humaines.

Il semblerait que Khosta-2 se fixe à la même protéine, ACE2, que le SRAS-CoV-2 pour pénétrer les cellules humaines. « Les récepteurs sur les cellules humaines sont la voie par laquelle les virus pénètrent dans les cellules », a expliqué au Temps le virologue Michael Letko, professeur à l’Université de l’Etat de Washington et auteur principal de l’étude.

Et pour compléter cette découverte peu satisfaisante, des analyses complémentaires ont démontré que Khosta-2 aurait surcroît la capacité d’échapper à l’immunité conférée par une infection et une vaccination anti-Covid. « Il est préoccupant de voir qu’il existe des virus circulants dans la nature qui peuvent se lier aux récepteurs humains et ne sont pas neutralisés par les réponses vaccinales actuelles », a alerté le Pr Letko.

Aucune contamination rapportée chez l’homme

Pour autant, les chercheurs se veulent rassurants. A ce jour, aucune contamination humaine n’a été rapportée. En outre, selon les résultats de leurs analyses, le coronavirus Khosta-2 ne semble pas doté de gènes de nature à provoquer des formes graves chez les humains.

Ce qui pourrait prévoir si Khosta-2 commençait à circuler et à se mélanger avec des gènes du SARS-CoV-2. « L’inquiétude est que le SARS-CoV-2 pourrait se propager aux animaux infectés par le Khosta-2, se recombiner, puis infecter les cellules humaines. Ils pourraient être résistants à l’immunité vaccinale et avoir des facteurs plus virulents », un exposé du Pr Letko, pour qui la vaccination anti-Covid ne doit pas faiblir.

Or, selon les dernières données recueillies par l’OMS, un quart des personnes dans le monde n’ont toujours pas reçu de primovaccination contre le Covid-19.

2 réflexions sur “Que sait-on de Khosta-2, ce nouveau virus proche du Covid-19 découvert en Russie ?”

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    https://colab.research.google.com/drive/1f0BqzDXvasHioKdQ_RZETK5iv-N4G7IF
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